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Bleekindigo
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Posted on Thursday, February 17, 2005 - 02:09 pm:   Delete Post View Post/Check IP Print Post    Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

Quick question-

What exactly happened that caused black folks to make the transition from Democrat to Republican?
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Bleekindigo
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Posted on Thursday, February 17, 2005 - 03:57 pm:   Delete Post View Post/Check IP Print Post    Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

CORRECTION: WHAT I MEANT TO SAY WAS:

WHAT HAPPENED THAT CAUSED BLACK FOLKS TO MAKE THE TRANSITION FROM REPUBLICAN TO DEMOCRAT? HISTORICALLY, WE WERE OVERWHELMINGLY REPUBLICAN RIGHT?

Bleek-
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Chrishayden
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Posted on Thursday, February 17, 2005 - 05:51 pm:   Delete Post View Post/Check IP Print Post    Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

Bleek:

It happened with the 1932 election. Until then Black folk voted overwhelmingly Republican--the party of Lincoln and all that.

As the Democrats have started to do, the Republicans took black votes for granted. In particular they would not fight for anti-lynching legislation in the U.S. Congress.

Finally fed up and disgusted, black political leaders led a wholesale crossover to the Democrats.
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Bleekindigo
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Posted on Friday, February 18, 2005 - 09:23 am:   Delete Post View Post/Check IP Print Post    Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

Thank You Chris.
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Yvettep
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Posted on Friday, February 18, 2005 - 01:09 pm:   Delete Post View Post/Check IP Print Post    Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

I am not a historian by any means. But I think the history of this switch goes back even farther than you point out, Chris. The Dem party splintered off from the Republican party in the mid 1800s. The southern block of the new Dem party was, as you can guess, supportive of slavery and later opposed to Reconstruction. Later, the Republican party took advantage of this split by specifically targeting Southerners in order to win back the presidency--Goldwater used this so-called "southern strategy" as did Nixon.
I fear what will happen to the current Democratic Party as (some) White Dems take on a stance of desperation and a desire to take back the White House at almost any cost.
Anyway, that's enough. Again, I'm not an expert so any historians and political science majors out there should help out. Definitely an interesting question with relevance today.
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Chrishayden
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Posted on Friday, February 18, 2005 - 02:06 pm:   Delete Post View Post/Check IP Print Post    Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

Yvettep:

It goes back to 1932.

I think you got your history balled up. The Republican party was born shortly before the Civil War after the anti slavery people deserted the Whig Party. Before that it was the Whigs and The Democrats who were called the Jeffersonian Democrats or something. The Democrats were in existence before the Republicans, who rose on the ashes of the Whig party, not the other way around. The Republicans were frozen out of the South until the 1960's--as a result of the Republicans being the party of Lincoln (and the party that had crushed the South in the Civil War) Southerners were yellow dog democrats--they would vote for a yellow dog rather than a Republican. This is the origin of the Solid South.

Goldwater did not use the strategy--Johnson, a Democrat, slaughtered him in the 1964 elections. Nixon was the first to use the Southern strategy--targeting the Wallace Democrats--those who felt betrayed by the Democrats' passing of the Civil Rights legislation.

This is the dilemma faced by many blacks who urge black people to vote Republican--it is crammed with people who have frankly gone over there to get away from black people. Should the Republican Party get full of blacks and start to favor them Southerners would move again.
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Chrishayden
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Posted on Friday, February 18, 2005 - 02:10 pm:   Delete Post View Post/Check IP Print Post    Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

Yvettep:

It goes back to 1932.

I think you got your history balled up. The Republican party was born shortly before the Civil War after the anti slavery people deserted the Whig Party. Before that it was the Whigs and The Democrats who were called the Jeffersonian Democrats or something. The Democrats were in existence before the Republicans, who rose on the ashes of the Whig party, not the other way around. The Republicans were frozen out of the South until the 1960's--as a result of the Republicans being the party of Lincoln (and the party that had crushed the South in the Civil War) Southerners were yellow dog democrats--they would vote for a yellow dog rather than a Republican. This is the origin of the Solid South.

Goldwater did not use the strategy--Johnson, a Democrat, slaughtered him in the 1964 elections. Nixon was the first to use the Southern strategy--targeting the Wallace Democrats--those who felt betrayed by the Democrats' passing of the Civil Rights legislation.

This is the dilemma faced by many blacks who urge black people to vote Republican--it is crammed with people who have frankly gone over there to get away from black people. Should the Republican Party get full of blacks and start to favor them Southerners would move again.
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Yvettep
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Posted on Friday, February 18, 2005 - 03:51 pm:   Delete Post View Post/Check IP Print Post    Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

Chris--I totally agree about the Republican Party being fulla folks trying to get away from Black people--and that might even include some Black Republicans!

I shouldn't have trusted my memory--Like I said, I'm not a history expert by any means. Not that the 'Net is the right place for careful research, but I did find a couple things that might clear up some confusion (especially mine!) From Dick Gregory's site (See http://www.dickgregory.com/ofari_dick_armey.html):

In a letter to NAACP president Kweisi Mfume House Majority Leader Dick Armey accused the organization of "racial McCarthyism." He specifically cited the NAACP's attack on Bush for indifference to the Texas dragging murder of James Byrd by three white supremacists and for inciting racially-divisive protests over Florida voting irregularities. Armey asked Mfume for a meeting. But if he is serious about easing racial polarization, he could start by looking at his own party's shameful record on race. In 1964 the Republican party was practically defunct in the five deep South states. Republican presidential candidate Barry Goldwater set out to change that by riding the first tide of white backlash. He opposed the 1964 civil rights bill, railed against big government, and championed states rights. At the Republican convention nearly all the Southern delegates backed him. Despite his landslide loss to Lyndon Johnson, Goldwater deeply planted the seed of racial pandering that would be the centerpiece of the Republican's "Southern Strategy" in the coming decades. The strategy was simple: court white voters, ignore blacks, and do and say as little about civil rights as possible.

In 1968, Richard Nixon picked the hot button issues of bussing, and quotas, adopted the policy of benign neglect and subtly stoked white racial fears. He routinely peppered his talks with his confidants with derogatory quips about blacks. He enshrined in popular language racially-tinged code words such as, "law and order," permissive society" "welfare cheats," "crime in the streets," "subculture of violence," "subculture of poverty," "culturally deprived" and "lack of family values."


My confusion about who splintered from who is probably due to the Dem's being actually the "Democratic-Republican" party. From the DNC's site (see http://www.democrats.org/about/history.html):

Thomas Jefferson founded the Democratic Party in 1792 as a congressional caucus to fight for the Bill of Rights and against the elitist Federalist Party. In 1798, the "party of the common man" was officially named the Democratic-Republican Party and in 1800 elected Jefferson as the first Democratic President of the United States. Jefferson served two distinguished terms and was followed by James Madison in 1808. Madison strengthened America's armed forces helping reaffirm American independence by defeating the British in the War of 1812. James Monroe was elected president in 1816 and led the nation through a time commonly known as "The Era of Good Feeling" in which Democratic-Republicans served with little opposition.

The election of John Quincy Adams in 1824 was highly contested and led to a four-way split among Democratic-Republicans. A result of the split was the emergence of Andrew Jackson as a national leader. The war hero, generally considered along with Jefferson one of the founding fathers of the Democratic Party, organized his supporters to a degree unprecedented in American history. The Jacksonian Democrats created the national convention process, the party platform, and reunified the Democratic Party with Jackson's victories in 1828 and 1832. The Party held its first National Convention in 1832 and nominated President Jackson for his second term. In 1844, the National Convention simplified the Party's name to the Democratic Party.


This is great! We really need to keep talking about this and educating ourselves about the history is an important step.

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Cynique
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Posted on Friday, February 18, 2005 - 04:20 pm:   Delete Post View Post/Check IP Print Post    Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

It also should be noted that after Reconstruction, Blacks weren't doing much of voting for either party in the south because of all the restrictions imposed on them such as the poll tax, and the requirements to pass tests that were graded by white officials who unfailingly flunked black applicants. Circa 1918 after World War I with the first Great Migration under way, in the northern cities where blacks were settling after fleeing the oppressiveness of southern Jim Crowism, blacks began to embrace the Democratic party because it reached out to minorities, billing itself as the party of the common man. By the time 1932 rolled around, all races had turned sour on the Republicans because of The Depression, and FDR was elected by a landslide.
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Chrishayden
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Posted on Saturday, February 19, 2005 - 11:33 am:   Delete Post View Post/Check IP Print Post    Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

Excuse me, Cynique. I hate to change the subject but I was listening to KoKo Taylor sing "Wang Dang Doodle" and I imagined you singing it.

I know Chicago is a great center of the Blues.

Do you like the Blues? Where are the great Blues Clubs in Chitown right now?
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Cynique
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Posted on Sunday, February 20, 2005 - 12:13 am:   Delete Post View Post/Check IP Print Post    Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

I'm not a rabid blues fan, Chris, but I do appreciate this art form because it's so rooted in the black experience. And I have always been fascinated with the folk lore surrounding blues giant Robert Johnson, the guitarist from the Mississippi delta who is said to have gone to the crossroads and sold his soul to the devil in exchange for his extraordinary musical gifts which included a hauntingly distinct voice, and the ability to finger the guitar strings like a piano keyboard, creating an amazing flow. He died in 1938 at the age of 27 under mysterious circumstances but his legend lives on. Chicago's most prominent venue for this music genre is The House of Blues. But, I'm sure there are a few lesser known little joints scattered throughout the city that feature blues artists.( Since I live in a suburb of Chicago, and don't do a lot of hangin out in the big city anymore, everything I know about Chi-town's music scene nowadays, I get from my kids.)
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Steve_s
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Posted on Sunday, February 20, 2005 - 07:07 pm:   Delete Post View Post/Check IP Print Post    Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

Hi Cynique!, The switch to the Democratic Party began in 1932, but according to this, Roosevelt still only received 23 percent of the black vote that year (against Hoover).

http://www.blackamericaweb.com/site.aspx/bawnews/party101

I recently read Kenneth Janken's biography of Walter White and I'm currently reading David Levering Lewis's W.E.B. Du Bois: The Fight For Equality and the American Century (great book). In 1948 the Democratic Party was split between Truman the incumbent, Henry Wallace, who was FDR's previous VP, running as a Progressive, and Strom Thurmond of the States' Rights Party (or Dixiecrats). African Americans were leaning heavily toward Wallace but for a number of very interesting reasons, Truman ended up with 2/3 of the black vote, which probably swung the election in his favor.

Eisenhower received 39 percent of the black vote in his 1956 rematch with Adlai Stevenson, or about twice what he had received in 1952. Some reasons cited: it was a low-turnout election (like 1996), Stevenson had become more moderate, and Ike's victory seemed inevitable. Four years later in 1960, Nixon received 32 percent of the black vote in what I'm guessing was a high-turnout election. (Check these figures)
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Steve_s
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Posted on Sunday, February 20, 2005 - 09:16 pm:   Delete Post View Post/Check IP Print Post    Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

Cynique, I'm not either, but on and off for a couple of years I played on the road with a bluesman born 1924 who will turn 81 on April 18th. Don Robey formed Peacock Records in Houston around him in 1948 or '49. He's a really lovely person. Not Delta blues but Southwest, jazz-influenced, coming out of T-Bone Walker whose single-note lines on guitar were very influential. There's also a lot of black influence in country music and vice versa. We played shows opposite everyone from Muddy Waters, Albert Collins, Son Seals, Little Milton, Koko Taylor, Odetta, Robert Lockwood, Jr., and many others I can't remember. There were some really good jazz musicians in that band. It was all about driving around the country sleeping face-down on the floor of a van, and playing mostly for college audience and some European jazz festivals. Moved to NY in the 1980s, hired by Jack McDuff, worked 3 nights per week at a club in Harlem (then called Dude's Lounge on St. Nicholas and 149th). Made three road trips with him, the first night in L.A., Jimmy Smith sat in and played two tunes at Memory Lane, Marla Gibbs's club. He said, "sound beautiful." Really sad to hear he had passed. By coincidence, the recent issue of Downbeat has a story about his group with Joey DeFrancesco. I studied with Ron Carter for two years, with the saxophonist who's on Mingus's Impulse recordings, etc. Had a quartet with Dexter's drummer and Elvin's bassist, both of whom I'd heard ten or more years earlier. Subbed in Tito Puente's group. Etc. Just normal stuff. Hate putting this on the Internet.
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Steve_s
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Posted on Sunday, February 20, 2005 - 10:47 pm:   Delete Post View Post/Check IP Print Post    Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

Someone posted this opinion on a history forum (the discussion leader actually) and I couldn't let it go unanswered. So how would you answer this (if you can)? Or do you agree with it?

As to Harry Truman, he showed more foresight and action than any of his predecessors in the field of Civil Rights. Truman, in spite of being racist in his past, genuinely hung his political neck out to serve the black man. He's given little credit for his work in this area. Civil Rights was the reason the Democratic Party split in 1948 and Harry Truman ran on Civil Rights plank he thought too tough, but he did it and won and he worked his butt off to get serious progress made in the face of Southern Democratic opposition which was supported by conservative Republican backing. If it weren't for Truman's groundwork, Brown v Board of Education might not have come about. It was the FDR/Truman appointed Vinson Court which first heard the case. Vinson died, Warren was appointed and the case progressed to decision. By then Eisenhower was president and everyone seemed to forget the fights Truman had in his efforts to get Civil Rights legislation passed and his efforts to encourage the courts to do their part. He won some and lost some, but he fought openly and honestly. He set the groundwork for what came later in the fifties. -- from a post on another forum

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Ancestry
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Posted on Monday, February 21, 2005 - 12:06 am:   Delete Post View Post/Check IP Print Post    Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

In Liberalism and Its Challengers' historian Alonzo Hamby states:

By the time Truman reached the presidency, blacks had become a key part of the Roosevelt coalition...As a senator, Truman had been a reliable and increasingly prominent supporter of civil rights causes but hardly a leader. His mixed attitude was well symbolized by the contrast between his public support of an antilynching bill and his private belief that it was an unconstitutional invasion of states' rights.

No historian can precisely define Truman's motivation on so complex and emotional an issue; it was probably not entirely clear even to truman. It seems fair to say that he really believed in the priniciple of equal rights and equal opportunity. But it is also just to observe that he was well aware of the importance of the black vote. It is reasonable to assume that he acted in part out of a sense of self-interest but more important that he interpreted his self-interest in a fashion both astute and morally enlightened.
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Steve_s
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Posted on Monday, February 21, 2005 - 01:01 am:   Delete Post View Post/Check IP Print Post    Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

Thanks for posting, Ancestry. Hope you come back.
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Cynique
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Posted on Monday, February 21, 2005 - 01:15 am:   Delete Post View Post/Check IP Print Post    Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

Well, Steve, I assumed Chrishayden knew what he was talkin about when he said that 1932 was the definitive year for the black swing to the Democratic party. LOL I didn't know enough about it to dispute this, but I did remember from reading "The Arc of Justice" and other books that Democrats began to make in-roads into the black vote when blacks began settling into the urban areas of the North during their first great migration from the south.
As for Harry Truman, he was a stand-up, no nonsense guy which is why he dropped the Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima and Nagsaki with no qualms. Also, from all reports he was basically a fair-minded person. I think he realized that integration was an idea whose time had come which was why his first move in this direction was to integrate the army forces. Eisenhower was a caretaker president, who wasn't much on rockin the boat and dragged his feet during the great white outcry over the integration of Little Rock, Arkansas' public schools. And it took JFK's assassination to motivate LBJ's aggressive stance on implementing the civil rights reforms JFK's had on the table, although it's been said that JFK's civil rights' credentials weren't that impressive, either. He was more about doing what was expedient when it came to this area. And I do remember reading that when Wendall Wilkie ran against FDR during one of his bids for re-election, Wilkie garnered some black votes. But, Wilkie was a very progressive Republican who many said was a Democrat at heart. And if we are to believe that PBS special on Lincoln and his wife Mary Todd, ol Republican Abe wasn't that keen on freeing the slaves because he preserving the union was his priority. He also felt if blacks were freed, they should be returned to Africa. I didn't see the last installment of this special so maybe Lincoln did an about-face later on because he does have his staunch defenders when it comes to the issue of slavery - and he did eventually sign the Emancipation Proclamation.

In reponse to your other post, it's interestng to learn that not only are you a prodigious reader but a musician who has earned his chops! You are a reed man, right??? You should write a book, yourself. "Memoirs of a Renassiance Man" - or something. I notice you never say a lot about jazz vocalists. Do you have any favorites? Are you familiar with Jeri Southern?
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Steve_s
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Posted on Tuesday, February 22, 2005 - 08:46 pm:   Delete Post View Post/Check IP Print Post    Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

Thank you, Cynique! You probably noticed that in the first few pages of Arc of Justice, Kevin Boyle sums up Calvin Coolidge's racial policy, which was not very good. I also checked the Du Bois biography I'm reading now, and found more information about Coolidge, also negative. But it didn't take long to find an online document with a Kennedy Center heading which praises Coolidge's record on race relations.

Harry Truman's presidency is described in detail in the books I mentioned. Highly recommended.

http://www.chicagopublicradio.org/programs/jazz/jz_mar04.asp

talk to ya later
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Steve_s
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Posted on Tuesday, February 22, 2005 - 10:03 pm:   Delete Post View Post/Check IP Print Post    Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

In W.E.B. Du Bois:The Fight For Equality and the American Century David Levering Lewis states:

With a supposedly invincible Thomas Dewey to his right and the virtually certain third-party candidacy of Henry Wallace to his left -- the public figure widely acclaimed as the last true Rooseveltian -- Harry Truman, a worried but canny calculator, bamboozled the NAACP.

Chapter 14
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Ancestry
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Posted on Wednesday, February 23, 2005 - 01:05 am:   Delete Post View Post/Check IP Print Post    Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

While this conversation is important. One should consider the effectiveness of federal legislation, 1964 civil rights act and the 1965 voting rights act as well as busing, affirmative action, and black politicians.

The effectivity of federal legislation, unfortunately, for many groups, namely African Americans and labor unions, has been dubious, to say the least. Without political support to enforce laws, antidiscrimination and pro-labor legislation have resulted in limited gains. Instead, improvements for these groups are the results of the ebb and flow of the Executive and Legislative branches, which are usually moderate/conservative...except for moments of social and political change, such as the reconstruction, wwi, the great depression, wwii, and the 60s.

Mary Frances Berry, former chairperson of the US Commission on Civil Rights, states:

I've learned that it does no good to have civil rights laws if they are not enforced. A man from Florida asked me the other day, "Why do we still have school segregation? We have a law that says it's illegal." I explained to him, nothing will change unless the law is enforced.

The commission gets individual complaints from people complaining about [national] agencies that haven't responded to complaints. We monitor the enforcement of civil rights. For example, we've received complaints about negligence in education, in criminal justice, in employment. The commission is supposed to go out and follow up on these complaints. In an unsympathetic administration the monitoring function, the prodding and persuasive function, doesn't happen.
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Cynique
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Posted on Wednesday, February 23, 2005 - 02:00 pm:   Delete Post View Post/Check IP Print Post    Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

Long ago, those opposed to desegregation claimed that you cannot legislate racial tolerance. Time has proved them right. There will never be a color-blind society, and equality is just an abstract ideal.
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Steve_s
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Posted on Wednesday, February 23, 2005 - 05:06 pm:   Delete Post View Post/Check IP Print Post    Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

Liberte, egalite, and fraternite are all abstract ideals, some say it's more about the dualism between equality and liberty and the value of the discussion.

To recap:

Duke Ellington and Zora Neale Hurston were both Republicans, probably for very different reasons. His life-long Republicanism is described by Penny Von Eschen as a generational phenomenon; hers is described in the biography by Valerie Boyd and is used by James T. Patterson in his book on Brown v. Board to represent an African American oppositional position on school desegregation. I've read Charles Ogletree's book, there are others by Derrick Bell and Sheryll Cashin. I listened to the 4-part discussion of Brown on Tavis Smiley's NPR program, and generally understand the problem of what one panelist describes as achieving separate-but-equal in reality, but have no personal connection to it.

Truman, with the help of Asa Philip Randolph and Walter White supported significant Civil Rights legislation (two steps forward, one step backward -- Adam Fairclough), but anti-communism gave white supremacy a new lease on life. Canada Lee, Paul Robeson, Du Bois, and Charles Houston all supported Henry A. Wallace (who opposed Cold War politics), but White traded idealism for expediency and got on the Truman bandwagon. Truman's foreign policy may have led us to where we are now.

I'm a poor student of history and haven't yet made the connection between Truman and Brown, let alone Truman and the Civil Rights legislation of the 1960s (except that each followed the other), but I'm not reading about Truman.

I'm more interested in the politics of culture, which is always relevant to this forum. For instance, Cornel West's Democracy Matters is a post-9/11 political book with an African American viewpoint (there are others by Walter Mosley and Julianne Malveaux). Hard to miss his call for a national dialogue among all Americans on the problems facing the country. It's interesting that he makes his case not through politics per se, but indirectly, by showing the deeply democratic and anti-racist strains in American literature and music. He views Melville's Moby-Dick as an allegory about imperialism and a call for interracial unity.

An interesting novel called The Time of Our Singing, by Richard Powers, a white author, deals with what W.E.B. Du Bois called voluntary segregation. Whether you like the novel or not, it is unusual. Hey, I think it's great that Thumper has chosen to read it. It shows he's open-minded.
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Ancestry
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Posted on Wednesday, February 23, 2005 - 08:18 pm:   Delete Post View Post/Check IP Print Post    Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

steve_s:

CW's book is a "post-9/11 political book with" one African American's viewpoint, as much of your posts suggests...
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Yvettep
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Posted on Thursday, February 24, 2005 - 07:36 am:   Delete Post View Post/Check IP Print Post    Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

Many of you have probably already heard about this: Bob Johnson's "secret meeting": Black Commentator story http://www.blackcommentator.com/127/127_cover_bob_johnson.html
Some strong opinions--very relevant to this conversation. Highlights one possible explanation for some African Americans' switch from Dems to Repubs: MONEY.
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Yvettep
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Posted on Thursday, February 24, 2005 - 07:37 am:   Delete Post View Post/Check IP Print Post    Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

P.S. Especially see the copy of Julian Bond's response to Johnson's invitation.
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Steve_s
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Posted on Saturday, February 26, 2005 - 03:18 pm:   Delete Post View Post/Check IP Print Post    Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

Regarding Julian Bond's replies to Bob Johnson's points about third parties and the use of political leverage of Democrats against Republicans "in the best interest of African Americans."

Bond refers to Ralph Nader's two Presidential bids in 2000 and 2004 but not specifically to Henry A. Wallace's1948 Progressive Party campaign.

From the biography I'm reading of W.E.B. Du Bois by David Levering Lewis:

Whether they might lose their jobs or not, [African Americans] should vote for Wallace, "whether he can win or not," Du Bois urged them, adding an idea that was breathtakingly philosophical even for him -- that even if Wallace lost the 1948 election," "there [was] every chance in the world that [his] principles . . . will win in 2048."
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Steve_s
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Posted on Saturday, February 26, 2005 - 08:15 pm:   Delete Post View Post/Check IP Print Post    Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

Ancestry, Walter Mosley's book begins with a disclaimer that anyone may read it, however, be aware that it speaks to the experience of African Americans. For that reason, I chose to identify myself by race when I submitted a question to him in "10 Questions for Walter Mosley" in the NY Times. He answered my question, although the Times chose to delete my self reference.

Don't want to say too much more about the CW book.

Cornel West: Jazz in the Key of Democracy:

http://www.paulagordon.com/shows/west/

Toni Morrison and Cornel West: Blues, Love, and Politics:

http://www.freespeech.org/fsitv/fscm2/contentviewer.php?content_id=802
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Ancestry
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Posted on Monday, February 28, 2005 - 01:00 pm:   Delete Post View Post/Check IP Print Post    Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

Steve_s: I understand, I think. I, however, was making the point that although they are addressing the concerns of African Americans as a group, the intellectuals' postions are one perspective among many. This doesn't mean that some black folks wouldn't agree with WEst, Mosley, and Morrison, but that the there is a diversity of African American political and intellectual perspectives.

To be safe and clear, by the way, I am not saying that you are homogenizing African Americans political perspectives.

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